Brands Names: Provigil
Price Range: $0.82 – $1.76
Dosage: 100mg / 200mg
Provigil refers to the class of drugs that are usually called “smart drugs” or neurometabolic stimulants. It is believed that such pharmaceutical preparations can significantly improve memory functions and concentration, and also have a stimulating effect on the nervous system, allowing them to increase patients’ efficiency and reduce their need for sleep.
The main active substance of the drug (modafinil) is a psychostimulant developed in the 1970s. The authorship of this money belongs to a French-American manufacturer, the Cephalon Corporation, whose intention was to develop medication to treat narcolepsy. Provigil approved by the US Central Office of Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and it is an excellent alternative to caffeine, amphetamine, and other popular stimulants of synthetic origin.
As a result of large-scale clinical studies, scientists have established that Provigil increases the level of serotonin in the anterior cortex and amygdala and stimulates an increased ejection from the synoptic gaps of dopamine, norepinephrine, and other monoamines. Under the influence of a medicament, the hypothalamus intensively produces histamine, which entails the activation of alpha-1 receptors.
The effects of Provigil
One of the most important and pronounced effects is considered to be an increase in vivacity, concentration, the ability to memorize, and the ability to comprehend and assimilate new information. Although Provigil is not an antidepressant and does not cause euphoria like some other illegal stimulants, it can contribute to improved mood and reduced anxiety.
As mentioned above, initially Provigil was developed to treat narcolepsy and obstructive sleep apnea. It was supposed to eliminate the effects of the chronic lack of sleep and drowsiness resulting from the transition to summer/winter time and the consequent shifts in work schedules. Unlike amphetamine, which causes euphoria, as well as side effects in the form of hangover and addiction, Modafinil is able to significantly increase concentration and performance without side effects. For experimental purposes, the drug was used and continues to be used in military and space missions.
Some scientists have suggested that the drug could be used to treat dependence on cocaine and some other addictive stimulants. The drug is able to alleviate cocaine withdrawal, but a positive result is not guaranteed and depends on a number of psycho-emotional factors. Numerous clinical trials have confirmed that the drug reduces appetite and promotes intensive weight loss. Provigil also demonstrates outstanding results in the therapy of cognitive impairment, is used to improve memory, and eliminates excessive daytime fatigue and drowsiness that are caused by primary biliary cirrhosis.
Since 2004, Provigil tablets have been used to treat adolescents and children suffering from hyperactivity and attention deficit disorder. Provigil and its analogs are currently used to alleviate symptoms of multiple sclerosis such as neurological fatigue and depressive conditions.
Use of the medicine is prohibited in the following cases: when an individual has intolerance or hypersensitivity to the constituent components; the individual has suffered vascular or cardiac diseases; or phobias, nervous disorders, or obsessive-depressive states are present.
Use of Provigil is contraindicated in pregnancy and during lactation. The medication should not be combined with alcoholic beverages and can significantly reduce the effectiveness of contraceptives. With cirrhosis and severe liver damage, the drug is strictly prohibited.
To treat drowsiness and narcolepsy, the drug is used once a day in the morning in the amount of 200–300 mg. In studies involving aircraft pilots , a dosage of 600 mg, divided into several receptions, allowed the pilots to maintain high accuracy, good reaction rates, and concentration for one and a half days. In the case of patients suffering from multiple sclerosis, an increase in the dosage from 200 to 400 mg did not result in a significant difference.
Provigil side effects
The most common side effects that occur with an overdose of the drug are headache and nausea. To date, Provigil is considered a safer stimulant than amphetamine and even caffeine.
According to a large-scale study by the Canadian Ministry of Health, it is possible to identify side effects and possible complications: the use of the drug is contraindicated for persons suffering from a clinically significant prolapse of the mitral valve that has developed on the basis of stimulant use; it is prohibited to use the medicine in the event of various mental disorders and abnormalities; increased sensitivity to the components of the drug can trigger rash, dermatitis, necrosis of a toxic type, and a number of skin reactions that threaten life; the medication can cause shortness of breath, a feeling of heat, and the occurrence of ulcers in the mouth and urticaria.
In rare cases, an overdose can lead to anaphylactic shock, dyspeptic disorders, nasal congestion, low back pain, and Quincke’s edema. Provigil should not be used by children, despite the fact that the results of the studies demonstrated the relative safety of the drug for adolescents and children aged 9 to 17 years.